The Supreme Court agreed with the government's argument and ordered that Northern Securities be dissolved and that the two railroads once again be operated as separate companies. In 1941 the United States entered the war, after the Japanese navy attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The United States geared up in an unprecedented burst of industrial activity, producing ships, planes, tanks, rifles, ammunition, and every other conceivable tool of war. Government has tried to stimulate economic growth almost since the beginning of the United States, with some presidential administrations being more active than others. The founder of Hull House was Jane Addams (1860–1935), who came from a well-to-do family in Cedarville, Iowa. When the transplanted Englishman Samuel Slater (1768–1835) established a textile mill in Rhode Island in 1797, he did more than open a fabric-making business: he set the stage for a long argument over the proper role of government in economic affairs. But getting cheaper cloth was not a problem for people in the South. On July 2, two federal judges, Peter S. Grosscup and William A. Charity was assigned to churches or to voluntary social workers, like Jane Addams. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees.http://www.afscme.org/about/aframlink.htm (accessed on February 20, 2003). Technology has changed the world in many ways, but perhaps no period introduced more changes than the Second Industrial Revolution. On the other hand, the Republicans resisted efforts supported by workers to pass laws that would limit the length of the work day or provide protection for women and children employed in factories. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. The introduction of electricity and its two main uses aside from communications—electric motors and electric lighting—introduced some of the most dramatic and pervasive social changes of the Industrial Revolution. Pullman had built a town near Chicago, named after himself, which had a population of about 12,000. While workers were organizing trade unions, employers often turned to the government for help in defeating them. The unprecedented size and influence of the companies that had monopolies on markets raised concerns that such companies (called trusts in that era) could seriously harm consumers by raising prices higher and higher since they had no competition (see Chapter 6). According to Mantoux (30), there was arise in various classes of people among them the producer royales and state factories who had immense power attributed to … In 1825 Representative Henry Clay (1777–1852) of Kentucky, who strongly believed that the government should help encourage economic growth, helped pass a law that set tariffs on imported iron, wool, cotton, and hemp (hemp is a tough fiber used to make rope and certain types of fabric) even higher (at 35 percent). In the consequent riot, about sixty more policemen were injured, most of them by bullets fired by other policemen. Addams campaigned vigorously for laws governing child labor, mandatory schooling for children, factory safety inspections, and labor unions. Encyclopedia.com. The governor showed that the trial had been a travesty of justice, and that the judge had allowed citizens with strong prejudices against unions to serve on the jury, while the prosecution never offered any proof that the accused had anything to do with the bomb. By 1932, at least 25 percent of workers did not have a job, and many others could only find part-time work. The Sherman Antitrust Act made it illegal for companies to conspire with one another to set (fix) prices on goods sold across state lines. The following year, Gompers stood for reelection and defeated McBride. During the period of major industrial change known as the ‘Industrial Revolution’, the methods of transport also changed greatly.Historians and economists agree that any industrializing society needs to have an effective transport network, to enable the movement of heavy products and materials around in order to open up access to raw materials, reduce the price of these materials and … While business owners were covered by laws protecting private property, workers had not previously been given parallel protection in pursuing their interests in the form of unions. It seemed there were always more workers willing to take jobs than there were jobs to go around. The changing world of the Second Industrial Revolution also led to fears by social critics about the loss of freedom, autonomy and independence that is replaced by boredom, repetition and toil, according to Freeman. The sight of so many unemployed caused a further contraction of sales, which led to more layoffs. 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