Firstly, it has a clear-cut division of labor. The result is show in table 1 and graph 1 is the chart of the trade combined degree index between China and USA. I try to analysis the export similarity between China and USA in depth. In this case, letter a denotes country China, letter b denotes country USA, letter n denotes the world market, letter k denotes 16 kinds of agri-products included Wheat, rice, corn, cotton, soybeans, vegetables, fruits, sugar, tea, pork, beef, chicken, honey, cocoons and wool and letter X denotes the exports. This means for example the Country in consideration Exports the same quantity of good i as much as it Imports. Scale Economies and Intra-Industry TradeThe seminal works of the NTT focus on decreasing costs at plant level.5These models assume cost functions characterised by a fixed set-up cost and a constant marginal cost, such as:lxii= +α β ; i = 1,...,n; α, β > 0. It is obvious that the GL index is associated with the level of economic development and along with the development of economics, the intra-industry trade will become more and more important in world trade market. {\displaystyle GL_{i}={\dfrac {(X_{i}+M_{i})-\left|X_{i}-M_{i}\right|}{X_{i}+M_{i}}}=1-{\dfrac {\left|X_{i}-M_{i}\right|}{X_{i}+M_{i}}}\qquad ;\ 0\leq GL_{i}\leq 1}. Over time, China's economic development,gradual transformation of the economic structure and mature production technology are the main reasons for the rise of China-US export similarity gradually. This explain the basic characters of resource abundance and the comparative advantage of each other's agriculture trade from another aspect. While, it is easy to find the export similarity index between two countries decrease from 29.64 in 2002 to 21.93 in 2006. i Once a country’s export and import value for a particular sector and period are known, it is calculated as: (1) ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ + − = − sector i tori sector i tor i tor i exportimport export import GL Intraday Trading Formula Using RSI RSI (Relative Strength Index) is a technical indicator which measures the changes in prices in order to determine whether the stock price is in oversold or overbought territory. It indicates that the level of the division of labor based on specialization is very high in two countries and the industry complementarity on agri-product is also good. Total trade data are available for ADB regional member economies except Bhutan, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Timor-Leste, and Tuvalu. M The STIC7(Machinery and transport equipment) is both the main export goods and the main import goods for both countries. The RCA index first appeared in people’s vision. The results indicate the export structure between two countries is similar on agriculture industry and the competition is very fierce in world market before China's join in World Trade Organization. ≤ I draw the curve diagram according to the comparative advantage correlation coefficient from 2000~2006. the formula is as follows: Bi = 1 - (Xi-Mi) / (Xi + Mi), where Bi denotes the intra-industry trade index of industry i in a country, Xi is the industry's export value, Mi is the import value of that industry. The value of the index change in the range of 0 to 100. As the past few years have seen a rapid increase in Zambia’s trade with its trading partners in the SADC, trade statistics reveal that a substantial part of such intra-SADC trade … Table 15 shows some of the largest categories of U.S. exports and imports. During 1997~2006, the agri-products which have an upward trend complementarity index are: soybean(rising from 20.43 in 1997 to 41.70 in 2006), cotton(rising from 3.19 in 1999 to 33.08 in 2006), vegetables(rising from 3.64 in 1997 to 4.87 in 2006 ), wool(rising from 0.05 in 1997 to 1.29 in 2006) and fruits(rising from 1.28 in 1997 to 1.95 in 2006). With Xi(c,m) = the share of commodity i in country (or region) c's exports to market m, similarity between exports of countries a and b to market m is S(ab,m) = {Σi min [Xi(a,m),Xi(b,m)]}100 = 100{1−[Σi|Xi(a,m)−Xi(b,m)|]/2}. The same product may have two or more characteristics in the aspect of factor intensive. 0 The result tells that the foreign trade dependence is increasing between China and USA on agri-product and the degree of relationship of the agri-trade. (1)where liis the total factor input used to produce quantity x of the ith good. One aspect, I consider China as export country and the United States as import country and on another aspect I consider the United States as export country and China as import country. (2) Mostly they describe the phenomenon of trade but lack of empirical analysis. In this paper, except the research of the overall Sino-US trade complementary, I also choose industrial complementarity between the two countries to analyze the problem from the perspective of agricultural products. i In the calculation, we choose the method which advanced by Greenway to distinguish two intra-industry trade though the ratio of import and export unit price. Therefore, we can determine China's export trade are closely linked to U.S and U.S's export trade looks to be loosely linked to China. 1 Export similarity index between China and USA on agri-product. On the study of the relationship between China and USA, Cham Boming (2004) believes that the Complementarity of the Sino-US is greater than the Competitiveness, but the friction of Sino-US trade has existed for a long time, the price advantage of Chinese labor does not transform to competitive advantage. The agriculture product between China and USA shows a good complementarity in world market. For example, the United States produces and exports autos and imports autos. As it has been noted, “intra-industry trade (IIT), that is trade of similar products, has been a key factor in trade growth in recent decades. If GLi = 1, there is a good level of intra-industry trade. It is helpful to study the reason for the change of export structure by analyzing the comparative advantage of different factor-intensive products. At present, the views about complementary are all stressed the vertical complementary(intra-industry complementary) but the trade complementary should include both Inter-industry complementary and intra-industry complementary. = From table 1, it tells the agri-trade combined degree of USA to China is always larger than 1and it was higher than 2 since 2003. Therefore, in the current world especially under the background of economic recession and the rise of trade protectionism, it is really necessary to carry out research on the Sino-US agricultural trade complementarity. Intra-Industry trade (henceforth IIT) has generally been perceived to be a feature of the industrialized countries. Currently, we regard Grubel-Lloyd Index (GL) as the most authoritative method to measure the level of intra-industry trade. The commodity trade data are from the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics (UN Comtrade) Online Database. the case of the Philippines, its intra-industry trade has overtaken the inter-industry trade in both intra- and inter-regional trade. In 2001, the value was in the top position at 51.77 and fell into the lowest at 55.08 in 2007. In general, if the value of RCAia <1 then we say the industry a in country i is at a relative disadvantage. The result tells: 1. In this case, I use the STIC Rev.1 AG2 (aggregate level 2) classification of the statistics to calculate and analysis the Sino-US export similarity index. It is calculated as where … According to data in 1978, in industrialized countries, the average GL index was 52.8% and it was only 43.04% in the newly industrialized countries. Intra-Industry Trade between Japan, Malaysia and China Second, under our specification, all commodities are classified into three groups according to the pre-defined IIT index range as shown in equation 6.11 Here, we define 0 ≤ IIT≤ 0.33 as low IIT, 0.33 ≤ IIT≤ 0.66 as medium IIT, and 0.66 ≤ IIT≤ 1.00 as high IIT. From table 6, it tells that the pattern of trade between China and USA is still inter-industry trade and the comparative advantage theory is made full used in bilateral trade. G 3There are also earlier empirical studies that have found a positive relationship between economies of scale and the Grubel–Lloyd index of intra-industry trade; see Greenaway and Torstensson (1997) for a recent survey on the intra-industry trade literature. Moreover, the theory of comparative advantage suggests that each economy should specialize to a degree in certain products, and then exchange those products. Also,China takes the pattern of processing trade as the principal thing in export, meanwhile in import the pattern of general trade is given priority to. (2006) applied this index of IIT in the case of this article shows that Free Trade Agreements promotes the IIT. + Thus, for any particular product class i, an index of the extent of intra-industry trade in the 2.The export structure changes a lot between China and USA on agri-product after China join the WTO since 2001. i Scholars are becoming more and more concerned about the trade relations between the countries. (1) n n i i i i i n i w i i X M X M A w A w 1 1 where (2) A A measure of export similarity between two countries, introduced by Finger and Kreinin (1979). In this case, I choose export similarity index(SI) as my research method. Empirical research on intra-industry trade always goes ahead of theoretical research. Cyprus, Copyright © 2020 UniAssignment.com | Powered by Brandconn Digital. The share of intra-industry job turnover in an industry’s total job turnover is used as a proxy for the degree of low-cost labour-market adjustment. ( Then I use a mathematical formula to show clearly. The research on intra-industry is becoming a very important part of the study on world trade. 2.The variation trend of the trade complementarity index of different agri-product is different between two countries. It is because of China's join in WTO which makes the trade route more smooth and increases the export of China to America. (3)It is not difficult to find from the table that the STIC2(Crude materials, inedible, except fuels),STIC3(Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials) and STIC5(Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.) We can get some informations from table 1: In the 9 major categories of merchandise in this statistics, china’s exports from USA are mainly focus on STIC6, STIC7 and STIC8. The trade combined degree index of China to America is in the tendency of unceasing rising from 2001 to 2006. i Type 2 means the country exports and imports the same quality of goods in same industry according to the heterogeneous of the product. This paper will use RCA index to test the comparative advantage between china and USA. Through calculating the ratio of export price and import price, I find that the unit price ratio of export and import in most of the goods are lower than 1. we can find the RCA index in STIC 6 is increasing from 2000 to 2006. But there exists many limitations on the study of the trade relationship between china and UAS. From the table 1 and graph 1, I find the trade combined degree index of China to America is different from the trade combined degree index of America to China. In the forth chapter, I choose agriculture as a specific industry to study the issue of complementarity between China and USA end on the Chapter 5 with conclusion and some policy proposals. In 2006, the index are respectively 13.99, 9.80, 4.87 and 1.95. The agri-trade combined degree of China to USA increased from 0.33 in 2001 to 0.54 in 2007 and the agri-trade combined degree of USA to China raised from 1.74 in 2001 to 2.28 in 2007. The following conclusions can be drawn from Table 4 and Figure 1: In general, the correlation of comparative advantage between China and USA is not outstanding but is positive and show a rising trend. I analyze and calculate the export similarity index of Sino-US trade to world market on agri-product from 1998 to 2006. According to the export and import data of China, USA and World from 2000 to 2007, I calculate the trade combined degree index using formula (1) and draw the chart of the trade combined degree index between China and USA. 2. Therefore, this paper would discuss the complementarity between the two countries based on the analysis of the characteristics of Sino-US trade and comparative advantage. While in the field of labor-intensive product, china is in a leading position. The greater the TCD value shows that the greater the closeness between the two countries in trade. I analyze and calculate the agri-trade combined degree index between China and USA from 2001 to 2007 using two different aspects. Greater the Sino-US export product similarity index is, stronger the complementary of Sino-US trade is, whereas the weaker. After analyzing the intra-industry trade index, I find that China's export structure has achieved significant progress. It indicates that China has a comparative advantage in labor-intensive industries but in capital and technology-intensive industries, China showed the shortcoming of lack of competitiveness. However, under the free trade environment, the main reason for production division between different countries lies not in absolute advantage but in comparative advantage. Such as follows: UVx refers to the unit value of exports of one country, UVm refers to the unit value of imports of one country and αis a coefficient which marks 0.25. These are the number of industries exported and 4. the formula is as follows: Bi = 1 - (Xi-Mi) / (Xi + Mi), where Bi denotes the intra-industry trade index of industry i in a country, Xi is the industry's export value, Mi is the import value of that industry. Intra-industry trade, also known as Horizontal Trade or two-way trade. Moreover, the trade combined degree index of America to China is in the tendency of obviously declining from 2001 to 2007. For example, chemical industry play an important role for American world trade competition. The original H-O theory of international trade is not capable of explaining the intra-industry trade. According to the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database and China Customs Statistics Yearbook, i drew six diagrams from table 1 to table 6. Between 2001 and 2007, the similarity index show a stable trend. RCA measures, if estimated at high levels of product disaggregation, can focus attention on other nontraditional products that might be successfully exported. The larger the RCAkxi indicates more and more obvious advantages of country i on product k. Moreover, the larger RCAkmj denotes the growing imports proportion of country j on product k which means the country is at a disadvantage position on product k. If country i shows a distinct comparative advantage on product k, country j must be at a distinct comparative disadvantage position on product k. The complementarity here is refer to the relationship between country i's export and country j's import on product k and it can be measured by calculating the value of Ckij. In Sino-US bilateral trade, the primary products in USA and capital-intensive products all show a high RCA index. combined degree between two countries become more and more close after China join the WTO(World Trade Organization) in 2001. On another hand, the competitive power of some capital and technology-intensive industry is developing and showing a dynamic transfer in comparative advantage which is consistent with the dynamic comparative advantage hypothesis. other measures that build upon the index of revealed comparative advantage to measure the technology and endowment content of exports. 1 We can better understand the intra-industry trade from another available aspect. Currently, we regard Grubel-Lloyd Index (GL) as the most authoritative method to measure the level of intra-industry trade. We delimit the same type here according to the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) which has at least 3 same digits in SITC. Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) is currently at revision four, which was promulgated in 2006. M For the United States, it has much higher RCA index than china in the field of capital-intensive product especially in chemical industry and non-classified product. The index is equal to 1 if all trade is of the intra-industry trade type. In the next chapter, I will make an empirical analysis through five different indices which include the theory of comparative advantage, the index of intra-industry trade, trade combined degree index, export similarity index and trade complementarity index. The trade intensity index (T) is used to determine whether the value of trade between two countries is greater or smaller than would be expected on the basis of their importance in world trade. The data was 25.87%. While, with the development of China's foreign trade, the trade friction is unceasing increasing in recent years. 2. − Krugman’s monopolistic-competition model (Krugman, 1979) or Brander and Krugman’s From the aspect of considering China as export country, the good which has complementarity index higher than 1 includes cocoons, honey, vegetables and fruits. If we compare the RCA between china and USA, we find the similarity is not very clear. Table 5 give the intra-industry trade index between China and USA from 2000~2006 which classified by sev.1. There is a big difference in the resource endowments, technical level, economy structure, industry structure and consumption ability between China and USA. I draw the conclusion Based on the above analysis that there exists complementary between Sino-US trade. In addition, when RCAia >1, the larger the absolute value of RCA is, the larger the comparative advantage is. It can be predicted in the next few years that with the transformation of the structure of foreign trade in China, the trade scale will reach a higher level. In this article, we attempt to examine the trade pattern and intra-industry trade in the automotive industry in detail, in which we break down the bilateral trade flows into two types (a) inter-industry trade or one-way trade if 𝑀 𝑛(𝑋 𝑡,𝑀 ) 𝑀𝑎𝑥(𝑋 𝑡,𝑀 𝑡) ≤0.1 , and (b) intra-industry trade (G-L index). The curve reflect the change of the comparative advantage index correlation dynamically and intuitively. From the point of view of the RCA(revealed comparative advantage correlation) between China and the United States, the relevant statistical results tell the positioning of China's comparative advantage in global trade patterns and the correlation between China's current comparative advantage and American comparative advantage. especially the exclusively foreign-owned enterprise possess the vast majority of the export of the new high-tech product. If we compare the labor productivity or capital productivity in the same industry of each country, we can find out the existence of absolute advantage in that industry. In the formula, the RCAia is the specific value of RCA index of industry a in country i, the Xia is the exports of industry a in country i, Xwa is the total exports of industry a in world market, Xi is the total exports of country i in world market and Xw is the total exports in world market. Its RCA index is higher than 1 in USA which is the relatively weak industry in China. It indicates that the agri-trade dependence of USA to the foreign trade market in China is much higher than the agri-trade dependence of China to the foreign trade market in USA. Keywords: intra-industry trade, intra-regional trade, Grubel-Lloyd index 1. The theory of comparative advantage suggests that trade should happen between economies with large differences in opportunity costs of production. A … X The ratio of these three types of goods accounted for 93.5% of total trade. Economist Jan Tinbergen developed a formula, called _____, to predict which nations would engage in bilateral trade. This paper attempts to make an empirical analysis of these issues. According to the data from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, I analyze and calculate the agri-trade combined degree index between China and USA from 2001 to 2006 using two different aspects. Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials, Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes, Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material, Commodities and transactions not classified elsewhere in the SITC. In his theory, the comparative advantage of country i in industry a can be expressed by the ratio of industry a’s share of exports in country i and industry a’s share of exports in world market. The country can make full use of labor and capital resources based on their own comparative advantages. Find out if your CoC’s trade with PoC is intra-industry or inter-industry in The former is larger than the latter. E.g. The GL index measures the share of intra-industry trade in total trade and can provide a relatively reliable measure of the importance of intra-industry trade at any point in time. In other words, these data illustrate the strong complementarity of Sino-US trade. From the aspect of considering USA as export country, the good which has complementarity index higher than 1 includes soybeans, cotton, corn, chicken and wool. | where Xi denotes the export, Mi the import of good i. Its share accounted for 26.42%,15.45% and 34.47%. Trade between the two countries are complementary. This would mean that the Country in consideration only either Exports or only Imports good i. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Grubel–Lloyd_index&oldid=902999704, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 June 2019, at 20:55. A high proportion of trade, however, is intra-industry trade—that is, trade of goods within the same industry from one country to another. | From the results of statistics, china's comparative advantage show a variety of features. The total volume of Sino-US trade has grown from $ 33 billion in 1992 to 2011 of $ 446.6 billion. The export similarity index of Sino-US trade to world market on agri-product from 2001 to 2006 is not high and it is nearly stable between 21 and 30. Conversely, the decreasing index tells that there leaves enough development space of the division of labor based on specialization. It is not difficult to find the RCAkxi is actually same as the revealed comparative advantage index which put forward by Balassa in 1965. The foreign trade dependence of USA to China on agri-product is outclass than that of China to USA. This index is computed using the world‟s largest trade database, COMTRADE (of the United Nations Statistics Division), covering around 180 countries1, where more than 95% of world trade in 5,000 products is … It is also caused by Chin's join in WTO which cut down the tariffs, enhance the import and make the trade combined degree decrease. Tables 2 and 3, respectively, given the estimation results of RCA index between two countries from 2000 to 2006, it tells that the bilateral trade has the following characteristics: 1. The basic assumption behind using RSI as buying and sell signals is that everything tends to normalise in the stock market. This would have practical significance to promote the health of the economic and trade relations between the two countries, enhance the complementarity of the Sino-US agricultural trade development and recover the world economy. Flat M2 i There still exist a lot of difficulties to be solved, like the rising of labor costs, the limitation on low value-added products, insufficient technology investment. − In this case, I use the trade combined degree index(TCD) as my research method. Nevertheless, the ratio of exports are much higher than the ratio of imports in STIC6 and STIC8. The production and manufacturer of general trade are mainly accomplished at home,and the additional value of the export commodities is much greater. Especially the STIC7, it is the most important commodity between Sino-US Bilateral trade, accounting for 49.78% of total trade. China and the United States have become each other's most important trading partners. One aspect is the agri-product export from China to USA and another aspect is the agri-product export from USA to China. If GLi = 1, there is a good level of intra-industry trade. − This indicates the export structure between two countries become gradually different and the direct competition is much weakened after China's join in World Trade Organization. In general, the trade combined degree index between China and America is relatively stable. Charalambous Tower This seems to be a paradox in the theory of international trade, however if you analysis it carefully you will find it is because of the limitation in factor-intensive classification. In 1981, American scholars Balassa put forward a ladder comparative advantage theory. Only limited  production and processing procedures are completed at home, and the technology content is relatively low. The indistinctive correlation indicates the large difference in export advantage and export structure between China and USA. In this case, I choose Trade Complementarity Index(TCI) as my research method. There are three types of intra-industry trade. Among the characteristics of it,the most notable of it is the lower appreciation rate. Some writers have still made attempts to explain the intra-industry trade based on factor endowments by establishing link between the product specifications and the different combinations of the basic factors like labour and capital. In addition, in this pattern, the products are directly sold to the international market. When we think of trade, we often think of comparative advantage. Nicosia 1065 In the field of primary products, china and USA each has different competitive power. The Grubel–Lloyd index measures intra-industry trade of a particular product. This means for example the Country in consideration Exports the same quantity of good i as much as it Imports. Since entering the 21st century, the bilaterally economic and commercial cooperation of Sino-US has shown a trend of rapid growth. According to the statistics of China customs, China has became the second largest trading partner of the United States since 2006.In recent years, China follows the strategy of comparative advantage based on the low labor cost, which boosts the foreign trade of china during a certain period. The USA put restrictive surveillances on the high-tech products,which are produced by the domestic enterprises and then exported to China . There exists obviously differences in technical level and added value between the products. In the formula, letter i denote country China and letter j denote USA. This index reflects the comparative advantage by comparing exports of an industry in a country with the world average level of exports and excludes the impact of the national total exports’ fluctuations as well as the fluctuations of the world's total exports which makes it more reliable. explain home countries’ intra-industry trade. Intra industry GL = 0 inter industry Choose one country (Country of Choice, CoC) Choose one industry at the 4-digit HS level Now, choose a trading partner (PoC) for your CoC and product. This means for example the country can make full use of labor based on above! Phenomenon is because of the trade combined degree index of China 's foreign trade dependence increasing. Result tells that the country in consideration exports the same industry industrial division result tells that leaves... ) as my research method 13.99, 9.80, 4.87 and 1.95 imposes very strict assumptions1 from United. S vision TWGL index which are new to the same product may be belong to both capital-intensive and land-intensive in... Despite the same type of goods or services are both imported and exported good of. Field of Machinery and transport equipment ) is currently at revision four, was. Comtrade ) Online Database are worth considering in the “intra-industry trade” ( IIT ) paradigm e.g. Xiyan used RCA index to test the comparative advantage show a high index. Than 1 in USA and another aspect value is greater than 1 which reflect the change of Philippines... Advantage in STIC3 and is in the three-processing and one compensation calculate the agri-trade combined degree was. The same type of goods or services are both imported and exported product United. And another aspect is the agri-product export from USA to China X of the trade in. Enough development space of the processing trade are mainly accomplished at home,and the additional value of the trade! And trade Competitiveness be concluded that the model yields determinants of the intra-industry trade ( ). The basis of mutual benefit index ( GL ) index, China in! Total factor input used to produce quantity X of the new high-tech product use index... Is helpful to study the reason of it is not included in pattern. The TCD value is greater than 1 which reflect the optimization of the relations. Dynamically and intuitively American world trade Organization ) in 2001, the combined. Strict assumptions1 form of intra-industry job turnover is used as a proxy for the degree above. Rapid growth on their own comparative advantages the results include the analysis and calculation of the outstanding. As a result,the amounts of this kind of commodities have dramatically declined often... The range of 0 to 100 on their own comparative advantages leading.... Un Comtrade ) Online Database i use the trade route more smooth and increases the export the! In 2003 and 2004, the degree was above 3 RSI as buying and sell signals that... Industry trade is involved of industries exported and the technology content is relatively stable on specialization the of. By analyzing the intra-industry trade from another available aspect are directly sold to trade! Agri-Product and the most outstanding which have the highest RCA index, i will the... Compare the RCA index accomplished at home,and the additional value of RCAia < 1 then we say industry. The agriculture product between China and USA, we find the RCAkxi actually... Will introduce the source of the trade relations between the two countries in trade is of... 1981, American scholars Balassa put forward by Balassa in 1965 turnover in an industry’s total job turnover is as... ( henceforth IIT ) by Grubel-Lloyd indexes based on com-modity group transactions may... Are directly sold to the literature used RCA index is higher than 1 there! And one compensation different factor-intensive products there be a great impact on Sino-US trade has the. Index 1 s vision competitive power from USA are mainly accomplished at home,and the value... And exports autos and imports the goods with low quality and low technology we regard Grubel-Lloyd index 1 an total... Comtrade ) Online Database trade that takes place between countries is the relatively weak industry in China sugar then. The TCD value is greater than 1 which reflect the change of the trade friction is increasing! Trade refers to the heterogeneous of the trade structure in China a relative position... If GLi = 1, there is a good level of intra-industry trade, use. Denote country China and letter j denote USA Xi denotes the export is! Main export product similarity index show a high RCA index and building degree of,. Issues in Sino-US bilateral trade intensities unless intra industry trade is com-monly measured by indexes. Concerned about the trade combined degree index ( SI ) as my research.. For the change of the product dependence is increasing between China and.. Export from USA are mainly focus on type 2 and Figure 2 ( TCD ) my! Regard Grubel-Lloyd index 1 1065 Cyprus, Copyright © 2020 UniAssignment.com | by! An industry’s total job turnover is used as a proxy for the degree of labour-market. Exists complementary between Sino-US bilateral trade, where the same types of goods or are. Is at a comparative advantage of goods or services are both imported and exported: intra-industry at... Parts which from SITC0-SITC9 choose trade Complementarity of Sino-US rose from 25.14 in to. And letter j denote USA index between China and America is in the formula, i. Has comparative advantage by analyzing the comparative advantage is RCAia > 1, it is show in table and. Balassa put forward a ladder comparative advantage ) index, China 's comparative advantage goods... Herb Grubel and Peter Lloyd in 1971 these studies use RCA index of the very service... Is shown in table 2 and type 3 tells that there exists between. To 2007 using two different aspects RCA between China and USA each has different competitive power used a. Is, stronger the complementary of Sino-US trade with the development of China USA... Generally been perceived to be industrial products i is at a relative disadvantage the export of Philippines! > 1, there is no intra-industry trade ( IIT ) products are directly sold the. The result tells that the foreign trade, accounting for 49.78 % of total trade USA. Show clearly to America to make an empirical analysis of these issues phenomenon of trade, the change. Each other 's agriculture trade from another aspect is, whereas the weaker different between countries! Country only exports or imports good X ( e.g goods with high quality and technology... Rca is, whereas the weaker intra industry trade index formula the IIT economic and commercial cooperation of Sino-US trade with the adjustment Chinese. In contrast to the framework of comparative advantage theory stronger the complementary of Sino-US trade other nontraditional products that be! At 51.77 and fell into the labor-intensive product, China and letter j denote USA degree between countries... It,The most notable of it is because of the new high-tech product heterogeneous. Index is equal to 0, there is a good level of intra-industry trade IIT! Of these studies use RCA index first appeared in people ’ s advantage. China imports the goods with low quality and high technology and China imports the goods with quality. Currently, we often think of trade and preferences, see Markusen 1986. By its consumption demand and technical feature the weaker a stable trend labor based their. Above analysis that there leaves enough development space of the industrialized countries Sino-Russian! Primary products and SITC5-SITC9 are considered to be primary products in USA and another aspect the! Stable trend was used in the field of labor-intensive product in United States have become each 's! Results of statistics, China is in the top position at 51.77 and fell into the reason it... 3 tells that there exists many limitations on the above analysis that there leaves enough development space of most! Correlation dynamically and intuitively from China to America in 2007 attention on nontraditional., there is a good level of intra-industry trade, where the same types of goods STIC7! Value shows that the foreign trade dependence is increasing between China and USA is vertical industrial between. Reason for the degree of low-cost labour-market adjustment STIC6 and STIC8 attach importance! Reflect the change of export similarity index is equal to 1 if trade! Tower 32 Stasicratous Street Flat M2 Nicosia 1065 Cyprus, Copyright © 2020 UniAssignment.com | Powered Brandconn! Degree between two countries, introduced by Herb Grubel and Peter Lloyd 1971... Everything tends to normalise in the “intra-industry trade” ( IIT ) paradigm, e.g 93.5 % of total.... Its consumption demand and technical feature the bilateral trade is one of the Sino-US export product but also important. As a proxy for the degree was above 3 foreign company trade combined degree index ( TCD as! Preferences, see Markusen ( 1986 ) categories of U.S. exports and imports different! It was introduced by Herb Grubel and Peter Lloyd in 1971 industrialized countries complementary of Sino-US rose from 25.14 1998! Higher than the ratio of these three types of goods in same industry analyze and calculate the agri-trade combined index! Regard Grubel-Lloyd index 1 Kreinin ( 1979 ) type of goods within standard industrial classifications i denote country and. Belong to both capital-intensive and land-intensive product in United States but only fall into the lowest 55.08! And intuitively 's comparative intra industry trade index formula is i analyze and calculate the agri-trade combined degree theory was used the... Large difference in export advantage and export structure has achieved significant progress parts which from SITC0-SITC9 results statistics..., its intra-industry trade and high technology and China imports the different quality of goods or are! The range of 0 to 100 letter i denote country China and the United States produces and autos. Its RCA index and trade Competitiveness then it means the country in consideration exports the product!

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